Programming languages and learning

Since Fortran is statically typed and looks more like Python than C, the research at the site below may support the use of Fortran as an introductory programming language.

Programming Languages and Learning: A quick primer on human-factors evidence in programming language design

Experiments have shown a positive impact of statically typed languages

A number of experiments have been performed that show a positive impact of static type systems over dynamic type systems. This benefit was found in situations where developers had to use an API that was new to them. In two studies, the positive type system effect was compared with the documentation effect (also, the effect achieved by code completion). In both experiments, the positive impact of type systems was significant and much larger than the documentation or code completion effect. Static typing also showed a positive impact on debugging time for type errors comparing Java and Groovy (where Groovy was used as a dynamically typed Java). The results showed that the Java group was significantly faster fixing the type error [3, 4].

The notation used in programming languages has a large impact on novices

In a study of six programming languages using novices, one randomized controlled trial found that accuracy rates for certain C-style languages (Perl, Java) were not significantly higher than a language with randomly generated keywords and symbols, while languages that deviated from this style did (Quorum, Ruby, Python). Statistical procedures called Token Accuracy Mapping now exist that can predict which tokens contribute, positively or negatively, to the overall effect [6].

The pseudocode shown, which I think is supposed to be easy for beginners to understand, is

y - 6547
if y = 1000
   y = y + 1000
else
   if > 1000 ! is there a y missing here?
      y = y - 1000
   else
      y = y + 2000
   end
end

which is close to Fortran. The paper “An Empirical Investigation into Programming Language Syntax” (2013) by Stefik and Siebert is here.

Abstract
Recent studies in the literature have shown that syntax remains a significant barrier to novice computer science students in the field. While this syntax barrier is known to exist, whether and how it varies across programming languages has not been carefully investigated. For this article, we conducted four empirical studies on programming language syntax as part of a larger analysis into the, so called, programming language wars. We first present two surveys conducted with students on the intuitiveness of syntax, which we used to garner formative clues on what words and symbols might be easy for novices to understand. We followed up with two studies on the accuracy rates of novices using a total of six programming languages: Ruby, Java, Perl, Python, Randomo, and Quorum. Randomo was designed by randomly choosing some keywords from the ASCII table (a metaphorical placebo). To our surprise, we found that languages using a more traditional C-style syntax (both Perl and Java) did not afford accuracy rates significantly higher than a language with randomly generated keywords, but that languages which deviate (Quorum, Python, and Ruby) did. These results, including the specifics of syntax that are particularly problematic for novices, may help teachers of introductory programming courses in choosing appropriate first languages and in helping students to overcome the challenges they face with syntax.

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